Water losses are known to be the hallmark in India’s water management system. Reducing these water losses is critical to efficient resource utilization, efficient utility management, and enhanced consumer satisfaction. It is often found that the reasons for loss of revenue occurs when pipe network is inadequate, through illegal connections poor information system and bad billing practices and a low level of technical skills and technology. Tariff systems and revenue collection often do not reflect the real value of water supplied, which limits the cost recovery of utilities and encourages customers to undervalue the service.
One of the major challenges facing water utilities is the high level of water loss in distribution networks. If a considerable proportion of water that is supplied is lost, meeting consumer demands is much more difficult. Since this water yields no revenue, heavy losses also make it harder to keep water tariffs at a reasonable and affordable level. This situation is common in many Indian cities and also a reason for intermittent water supply.
About Wardha City
Govt. of Maharashtra (GOM), who provides grant-in-aid and stands guarantee for the loans to the Urban Local bodies (ULBs) in the state for the water supply system schemes, has decided to take a close review of urban water supply schemes. Wardha is one of the cities that was reviewed and it was found that the major cause in revenue loss of ULB is believed to be unaccounted for water losses in entire water supply system. The research also showed that due to leakages at pumping zones, there were considerable energy losses as well.
Wardha isa city and a municipal council located 70kms from Nagpur. Wardha City is administered by a municipal council (category‐A).Wardha Municipal council manages the water supply system to city from “Dham River” source by lifting water from head works at Pawnar & Yelakeli.
After a thorough research &planning, local government took a decision to augment a watersupply system that focuses majorly on water conservation through calculation of non-revenue water (NRW).
Ceinsys was awarded with the project of water supply system Reforms under Maharashtra Sujal Nirmal Abhiyan Program for gap analysis with SLB indicators (PI)and designed to operate a 24×7 water supply system.
Total Area for the proposed water supply system was 9.25 in sq. km.
Design Population was 141100 souls.
The total length of Distribution Network was 192km. (includes existing, proposed and replaced).
Defining Non-Revenue Water
“Non-Revenue Water” (NRW) – defined as the difference between the amount of water put into the distribution system and the amount of water billed to consumers—averages 50% in the region’s cities and can reach much higher levels.Non-Revenue Water(NRW) is a good indicator for water utility performance; high levels of Non-Revenue Water (NRW) typically indicate a poorly managed water utility. In addition, published Non-Revenue Water (NRW)data are often problematic, suspicious, inaccurate, or provide only partial information.
- Consumer meters are not installed in city hence all the consumers are billed as Unmetered Consumer on flat rate billing basis.
- Water Tariff is annual along with property tax.
- There is no system for measuring non-revenue water & losses.
- At present, there are 6 water distribution system command areas. There is no measurement of bulk water supply.
- Achieving 24×7 water supplies as per the central government guidelines with emphasizing the focus on water conservation.
- In cases of pipe leakages, there are chances of water contamination which affects the health of the consumers. Our objective is to avoid health those health hazards. This would also in turn help in energy savings.
- To ensure pressurized & equitable water supply.
- To identify physical & revenue losses in system.
- To identify the action with cost benefit analysis.
- To ensure the end result & providing same as greater benefit to water end user while reducing operating costs, energy use per capita energy consumption.
- To advise concerned authority in the tendering process for procurement of equipment/machinery requirement in the pumping stations.
- GIS Data – GIS Mapping useful for the feature extraction and creation of base map.
- DGPS, GCP Collection
- Consumer Survey is very important to analyse the socio-economic conditions of the town.
- Water Audit is carried out from source to tap in WMC area progressively so that entire system from source to consumer could be covered.
- Detailed analysis of energy efficiency that involves walk-through analysis, input data collection, site visit, and field observations (equipment test, equipment energy performance). Input data is collected in the form of electricity bill (last 2 years), log book, scheme detail, flow diagram, pumping machinery details etc.
The Wardha municipal corporation needs 17.36 MLD of water, but, due to improper management in the water supply, the council is not able to meet the required demand. Hence, Ceinsys proposed the below solutions:
- Illegal connections should be checked and converted to registered connections.
- Council should verify the additional (non-registered) connections found during consumer survey and regularize those connections to increase the revenue.
- Consumer meter should be installed at consumer end.Taps should also be installed at consumer end to stop wastages of the useful water.
- Replacing of all House service connections (HSC) which are main sources of leakages in water distribution system (D/S)
- To increase the overall revenue, Council should convert all the stand post into group connections.Provide connections to those who want regular connection and Commercial use of water on domestic connection should be stopped.
- Ultrasonic portable flow meters
- Full bore electro-magnetic fix type bulk flow meters.
- Pressure measuring devices.
- 9.97% losses are observed in raw water gravity main, need to be minimised.
- Hanuman Tekadi WTP processing losses is observed 4.85%
- Pavnar WTP processing losses is observed 6.17%.
- Out of the total loss 8.42 % of water loss is in the pure water gravity & transmission mains.
- Losses in the water distribution system are calculated using Top down and Bottom up approach.
- Losses in the water distribution system using Top down approach are come out to be 30.84%.
- It is recommended to install the consumer meters on individual house service connections to have metered supply which will reduce the losses.
- Council is generating bill for 31.01% of the total water lifted at the source.
- Future water demand based on population projection & with 135 lpcd was done.
- Non-revenue water (NRW) of the system is 68.99%
- The scheme was sanctioned for 48.34CR under AMRUT mission.
Water Audit was carried out based on water balance of that water supply system. The water balance of Wardha is as shown below:
|System Input 27.462 MLD||Authorized Consumption 8.737 MLD 31.81%||Billed Authorized Consumption 8.515 MLD 31.01%||Billed Metered Consumption NIL MLD 0%||Revenue Water 8.515 MLD 31.01%|
|Billed UnMetered Consumption 8.515 MLD 31.01%|
|Unbilled Authorized Consumption 0.222 MLD 0.81%||Unbilled Metered Consumption NIL MLD 0 %||Non-Revenue Water 18.947 MLD 68.99%|
|Unbilled Unmetered Consumption 0.222 MLD 0.81%|
|Water Losses 18.725 MLD 68.19%||Apparent Losses 0.790 MLD 2.88%||Unauthorized Consumption 0.790 MLD 2.88%|
|Customer Billing Inaccuracies NIL MLD 0%|
|Real Losses 17.935 MLD 65.31%||Leakages in Raw Water Transmission 2.738 MLD 9.97%|
|Processing Losses 3.026 MLD 11.02%|
|Leakages in pure Water Transmission & gravity main 2.311 MLD 8.42%|
|Overflows at Storage Reservoirs 1.392 MLD 5.07%|
|Distribution Losses & Leakages on Service Connections up to Point of customer Meter 8.468 MLD 30.84%|
Flow Calculation Diagram of Water Supply Scheme
The intense 30 years long action planning process was jointly led by government of Maharashtra and Ceinsys Tech Ltd. to emerge the awareness about the importance of non-revenue water (NRW) for future proofing Wardha. Ceinsys ensured that use of new technology lead to achievements of service delivery objectives which aims to provide universal, affordable and equitable water supply system to consumers while minimizing the non-revenue water consistently and reliably.