Maharashtra Sujal Nirmal Abhiyan (MSNA) is a reform led program. The program aims at achieving 24×7 water supplies as per the central government guidelines with a focus on water conservation. It includes a scope of accountability mechanism like theft, leakages and to promote the judicious and equitable distribution of available water to all consumers while extending the access of water to all the residents in the ULB. Parameters for improvement include the intra-city equitable distribution of water or Water distribution System , water to the desirable level quality, non–revenue water within acceptable limits, optimal cost of service provision, improved service level and functionality of metering etc.
Jalgaon Municipal Council called for tenders to conduct audit of system, to know the present technical & commercial efficiency of the water supply system. This includes various sub-works i.e. carrying out consumer survey, water audit, energy audit providing and installing flow meters, Geographic Information System (GIS) development & mapping, hydraulic modelling and computerized water billing & collection system for towns in the state.
Potable water is not available in plenty and scarce in nature; making it more demanding. More energy is required to pump water to long distances and from deeper depth in the ground. This is an alarming situation and ever increasing population is a warning to everybody to conserve & optimally use the available water resources.
Water as a resource, is an essential commodity, and has to be looked upon from demand as well as supply side. The urban local bodies, which are from the supply side, need to play a vital role in managing this scarce resource. As urbanization continues on a wide scale, it gets difficult for the local bodies to cost effectively provide water to keep the cities operational. Further in the process of improving overall water system efficiency, energy & water consumption have to be viewed as associated inputs rather than viewing them as separate and unrelated. On the other hand, the demand side consists of consumers who have to be made aware of the present situation of the available water resources, the necessary habitual changes required to be made by adopting various means of water conservation, optimal use of available water, re-use and re-circulation of waste water for some activities.
Govt. of Maharashtra (GOM), who provides grant–in–aid and stands guarantee for the loans to the Urban Local bodies (ULBs) in the state for the water supply schemes, has decided to take a close review of urban town water supply schemes on an emergency basis. Review of these potable water supply schemes revealed an unsatisfactory situation. In most of the water supply schemes, the expenditure is mainly on establishment and the activities like operation & maintenance, billing recovery, improvement to existing system has not been done properly resulting in heavy water losses due to water leakage, illegal connections, theft of water and loss of revenue. Moreover, Local bodies also lack requisite expertise in operation and maintenance of water supply schemes. In many cases the major cause in revenue loss of ULB is believed to be unaccounted for water / energy losses in entire water supply system. GOM has therefore decided to take urgent steps for improving the efficiency of the water supply system and the process has taken up “Sujal–Nirmal Abhiyan” project. The project basically aims at up-gradation of water systems of small & medium towns in Maharashtra. This ULB improvement program includes funding to various Municipal councils in the state to increase serviceability of the system.
- Achieving 24×7 water supplies as per the central government guidelines with emphasizing the focus on water conservation.
- Identified physical & revenue losses in system.
- To identify the action with cost benefit analysis.
- To ensure the end result & providing same to the end user while reducing operating costs, energy used per capita consumption.
- To advise concerned authority in the tendering process for procurement of equipment’s/machinery requirement in the pumping stations.
The project is designed considering 30 years (design year).It include three phase
|PHASE I||PHASE II||PHASE III|
|Consumer Survey||24X7 Pilots||24×7 Systems|
|GIS Mapping||80% Metering||100% Metering|
|Water Audit||collection efficiency 80%||collection efficiency 100%|
|Energy Audit||Creating MIS||100% O&M|
|Flow Meter supply and installation||Tariff Framing|
|PPP in O& M|
Overview of Jalgaon Water Scheme
Present Source of Raw Water for Jalgaon City is Waghur Dam on Waghur River. The Waghur dam site is located near village Raipur @25 Km from Bhusawal & 21 km from Jalgaon. Quantity of water daily supplied to city from this source is @ 65 to 80MLD. It comprises of one raw water pumping station, one water treatment plant, two booster pumping station and one pumping station for supplying water to ESR’s.
Waghur raw water pumping station is the major raw water source for Jalgaon city. Waghur scheme have 6 Nos. pumps (4 working+2 standby) are installed in 2007.
|Name of City||Jalgaon|
|Class of City||“D” Class Municipal Corporation|
|Tahasil & District||Jalgaon, Tal. & District: Jalgaon|
|2011: 460468 (As per preliminary census data)|
|Municipal Council Area||68.24 Sq.km.|
|Average Rainfall (mm)||730 mm|
|Average altitude (mtr)||578 to 611 m above sea level|
|Nos. of Wards||69|
|Present water supply source||Waghur Dam|
|Existing supply||@ 90 ‐100 MLD|
|Existing storage||MBR = 26.0 ML, ESR/GSR =(33.60 + 10.50)= 44.10 ML|
|Water supply connections||Domestic 66887 + Non Dom. 391, Total = 67298 Nos|
|Exiting Transmission Main||33.788Km [ Dia ranging from 200mm to 1500mm]|
|Exiting Distribution piping||564.350 Km [ dia 25mm to 600mm]|
|Whether covered / likely to be covered with sewage?||Yes|
Usage of GIS based services
1. GIS MAPPING
– GIS mapping indicates the feature extraction and creation of base map.
- CEINSYS provided high resolution satellite imagery (World View-2) for digital data extraction.
- Photogrammetric technique was used to extract digital data from high resolution satellite imageries for the development of water supply system of Jalgaon Municipal Corporation.
- Topographical details were obtained with Hydrological features along with Roads and Railway Network.
STEREO Pair Imagery Purchase
Image Procurement has been done through NRSA, Hyderabad, the only Legal Organization in India. World View-2 (0.6m Colour resolution) Stereo-Pair is supplied and distributed by Digital Globe, Singapore.
DGPS, GCP Collection
A single GPS receiver from any manufacturer can achieve accuracies of approximately 10 meters. To achieve the accuracies needed for quality GIS records from 1 to 2 meters up to a few centimetres requires differential correction of the data to improve accuracy.
The collected GCPs through DGPS survey is used for geo-referencing the satellite imagery data.
The tie-points pattern is used to clear the Relative orientation error or parallax. This will create a relation between all the images, reducing the Y-Parallax and X-Parallax. Out of 109 tie points including 20 GCPs the RMSE (pixel) is 0.0017.
CEINSYS introduced the Ground control points i.e. Absolute Orientation. This orientation will refine our images from orbit information to real assigned co-ordinate system.
Aerial triangulation is applied to determine X, Y and Z ground co-ordinate of individual points on measurements from photograph.
DTM and Feature Extraction
After completion of the Arial triangulation reception, the Digital Terrain Model can be extracted. It includes all the morphological features along with break lines and mass points.
CEINSYS performed digital stereo compilation to collect the morphological features along with break lines and mass points for the generating Digital Elevation Model (DEM).
Digital Elevation Model is suitable for generating 1meter vertical interval contours for 50 cm resolution stereo images. These contours are used for hydraulic modelling.
Orthophotos (50 cm resolution) was generated in Erdas Imagine with the help of stereo environment using Digital Elevation Model.
All data (mass points, spot height points, break lines etc.) are represented by digital surface model (DSM).
Base Map Creation
Base map can be created using different sources as per the accuracy and details desired for the particular kind of application. Base map was created by interpretation and digitization from the rectified satellite data.
2. Consumer Survey and Indexing
Survey was carried out for property details. The activity of property survey involves door to door survey, thus there was interaction possible with the property owners / tenants. Consumer survey data is useful in Hydraulic Modelling, Water Audit, and Demand Supply Analysis. Ward wise Connection Details as per their connection use and size. After updating the survey data, it is matched with JMC details.
3. Energy Efficiency Calculation
The purpose of energy audit is to understand what extent simplifications are possible. The overall energy consumption of Jalgaon water supply scheme comprises of energy consumption of five pumping stations i.e. Waghur raw water pumping station, WTP At Umale, Girna Pumping Station, DSP chowk booster pumping station & Raymond chowk booster pumping station. Detailed analysis of energy efficiency involves walk-through analysis, input data collection, site visit, and field observations (equipment test, equipment energy performance).
Input data is collected in the form of electricity bill (last 2 years), log book, scheme detail, flow diagram, pumping machinery details etc.
EXISTING PUMPING STATION
|Sr. No||Name of Pumping Station||Motor Rated
|Overall Pump & Motor Combined Efficiency %||Average Power factor|
|1||Pump-1 Waghur Raw
|2||Pump-2 Waghur Raw
|3||Pump-3 Waghur Raw
|4||Pump-4 Waghur Raw
|5||Pump-5 Waghur Raw
|6||Pump-6 Waghur Raw
|7||Pump-1 Girna Pumping
|8||Pump-2 Girna Pumping
|9||Pump-1 Girna Pumping
|10||Pump-2 Girna Pumping
|11||DSP Chowk Booster
The overall electrical energy consumption of the Jalgaon water supply scheme is 1, 10, 04,422 kWh/annum.
4. Installation Of Flow Meter
Flow measurement includes quantum of flow released from the service reservoirs and measurement of flow of water from the selected water connections. Assessment of Bulk water supply systems is done for operational hours & flow patterns. However, simultaneous measurement of inflow, outflow at various components of system are recorded for operational hrs during study period. DMA study includes inflow to DMA; water consumption at consumer end in DMA/Sub-DMA is measured and recorded for the study period. Flow readings are taken at these locations for regular intervals as required during the study period.
Measurements of night flow into sectors of the distribution system prove to be extremely useful for rapidly identifying the presence of new unreported leaks, which can then be located and quickly repaired. This technique can be used irrespective of whether customers are metered or un-metered.
Whenever actual metering is not possible, for example in activities such as stand post, etc., every effort is made to estimate each component of water use accurately to determine realistic quantities for the water balance.
5. Water Audit
The main objective of water audit program is to quantify Physical losses & NRW. For Jalgaon this is applicable to verify variation in consumption, as all consumers of similar category & billed as per tap size on Flat rate basis and not on actual consumption.
Data recorded daily, is send for further analysis using in house software prepared based on AWWA water audit sheet. Volumetric readings are taken, for those connections, where it was not possible to install consumer meter in sub DMA. Suitable measures of rehabilitation are identified & suggested for improvement of system.
Details as Per DMA Study
|Average Measured Raw Water Input||90.30 MLD|
|Average Losses measured From HW to ESR||14.64 MLD|
|Average Distribution system Losses||50.35 MLD|
|Water available for distribution @ ESR||75.66|
|Total popn of town as per consumer survey||490320 Souls|
|Water available at consumer End||25.60 MLD|
6. Hydraulic Modelling
Hydraulic modelling rationalizes the distribution networks, there by leading to savings in capital as well as operational cost.
- Suitability for continuing their use in future.
- Possibility to increases their serviceability by renovation / rehabilitation.
- Possibility to increases their capacity with suitable renovation / rehabilitation.
- Addition of proposed component in parallel, to augment it for desired capacity.
- Replacement with revised parameters & capacity.
DGPS, GCP Collection
7. Population Forecasting
Population forecasting, demands projection and demand allocation in various stages as per the norms of water supply in CPHEEO manual.
The population for these stages is projected by using population projection methods.
|Year||Arithmetic Increase Method||Incremental Increase Method||Average||Avg. as calculated By PMC MJP|
Existing Network Mapping
The hydraulic analysis of distribution network of existing networks is carried out using “Water Gems V8i, By Bentley as per the TOR. Layer of existing pipe network from Updated Base map in A‐Cad file format is imported as pipe network for analysis.
Demand Projection and Demand Allocation
Preparing and running base scenario of each DMA, running the base as well as child scenario, allocating the demands to the nearest node and allocating the demands by these in polygon method, checking the demand and supply of the zone.
The demand allocation is done by using the LOAD BUILDER wizard (Bentley).
The network balancing & alternative hydraulic model for existing distribution lines are analysed considering peak demand.
MSNA is an activity oriented program in which measurements in terms of savings (water, energy consumption, expenditure, monthly billing) for 30 years design period by converting existing intermittent water supply system into 24×7 water supplies @135lpcd at desire pressure with 100% coverage, metering and monthly billing.
As per the observation from the extensive water program, the following works are envisaged for improving the service levels to consumers of Jalgaon. The project is design considering 30 year as design period.
The improvement programs are under three phases-
- Immediate stage (Yr. 2018)
- Intermediate stage (Yr. 2033)
- Ultimate stage (Yr‐2048)
The sustainability of existing components are checked for the year 2018, and suitably rehabilitated / augmented is proposed in phase manner in intermediate phase (year 2018‐2033 ) & ultimate phase (year 2033‐2048).