Ground water is the major source in India not only for domestic use, but also for agriculture and industrial sector. At present scenario, 85% of domestic water requirement in rural areas, 55% of irrigation water requirement of farmers, 50% of domestic water requirement in urban areas and 50% of process water requirement of industries are met by ground water hence striking a need for water quality mapping. Ground water is tapped for the past two decades due to increasing demand of water and mismanagement of water resource. This leads to water scarcity that can only be tackled by GIS of ground water. Ground water level has been falling rapidly day by day. It is very essential to start investigations oriented towards the ground water quantification and qualification which are the basic to form plans for its exploitation, management and conservation.Due to over exploitation of ground water in the state, drinking water sources are depleting / drying and water quality problem is arising of it. The contamination of groundwater with iron, arsenic, nitrate, salinity and fluorides etc. are some of the serious problems encountered in developing countries. Thus there is a rising need of Water
Quality Mapping, its trend and the temporal changes that occur in concentration levels to assess the problem, otherwise creating serious health hazards.
Public Health Engineering Department – Chhattisgarh has 26 district levels, 1 state level and 14 Sub Division level laboratories. These laboratories are performing routine tasks along with water quality analysis of drinking water samples in rural areas of the state. Water quality assessment bring into view, problems like Fluoride, Iron, Nitrate, and Brackishness etc. have also been found in some pockets of the state in the last few years.
There are about 4.37 lakhs drinking water sources in the State in addition to other community, semi Govt. and public utility sources. Regular water quality monitoring of these sources according to desired parameters, using existing laboratory facilities is not possible. Thus, to supplement the laboratory testing activities of the PHED, it was proposed to outsource the work of one time water quality assessment. The said GIS of water resources work will be completed within 02 years for all the districts.
Project activity involves collection of drinking water sample from all PHED sources and transporting them to the laboratory within 24 hour for testing of given 15 parameters. Unique numbering of the sources will help to generate systematic and scientific database for GIS of water resources in the state. Analysed results will be compared with as per BIS 10500: 2012, Beaurau of Indian Standards.
Along with the Water quality monitoring, sanitation survey of each drinking water source will be carried out.
- To create a Geo-spatialdatabase of Pipe Water Supply Schemes by mapping water resources including all components of the scheme.
- To determine the quality of water in its natural form.
- To assess the impact of the various activities performed by human beings up on the quality of water.
- To deeply observe the water sources and to check for presence of specified hazardous or harmful substances in water.
- To identify the contaminated source i.e. ground water based sources and other water bodies.
- To obtain reliable and useful data of water quality as a whole and to adopt corrective measures to ensure safe supply of drinking water in rural areas.
- To train the villagers for future drinking water quality monitoring.
Usage of GIS based services for –
- Database collection
- Base map preparation
- Collection of water samples
- Unique Codification of all sources
- Field data collection for wells, villages, and sources
- Water Quality analysis at Laboratory with the samples gathered.
- Generation of attribute database for all parameters
- GIS integration of database with field data
- Database analysis
- Preparation of Water Quality Maps and DPR
- Submission to Govt. agencies
- Mitigation process
- GPS and GIS technology helped to generate the water quality maps.
- Area for probable dental and skeletal Fluorosis can be mapped.
- Sanitation can be improved in priority area.
- For future, monitoring of water quality, the database needs to be updated regularly.
- Highly contaminated drinking water sources can be immediately capped by Government.
- Specific parameter wise water quality maps can give the overall situation of the drinking water quality in the state.
- Health improvement statistics can be increased.
By completing this activity Chhattisgarh state will prepare the entire water quality database and can upload the same on website of the Department of Drinking Water Supply.